American Journal of Plant Biology
Volume 2, Issue 1, February 2017, Pages: 25-34

Angiosperm Diversity at the Village Sabgram of Bogra, Bangladesh with Emphasis on Medicinal Plants

Mowsume Akhter Keya, A. H. M. Mahbubur Rahman

Plant Taxonomy Laboratory, Department of Botany, Faculty of Life and Earth Sciences, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

Email address:

(A. H. M. M. Rahman)

To cite this article:

Mowsume Akhter Keya, A. H. M. Mahbubur Rahman. Angiosperm Diversity at the Village Sabgram of Bogra, Bangladesh with Emphasis on Medicinal Plants. American Journal of Plant Biology. Vol. 2, No. 1, 2017, pp. 25-34. doi: 10.11648/j.ajpb.20170201.15

Received: October 30, 2016; Accepted: January 9, 2017; Published: February 4, 2017


Abstract: Background: The flowering plants have a number of uses as food, specifically as grains, sugars, vegetables, fruits, oils, nuts, and spices. In addition, plants and their products serve a number of other needs, such as dyes, fibers, timber, fuel, medicines, and ornamentals. The contribution of the angiosperms to biodiversity and habitat is so extremely important that human life is totally dependent on it. Materials and Methods: Angiosperm diversity at village Sabgram of Bogra district, Bangladesh conducted during March 2013 to July 2014. All the species were noted and time to time the areas were visited to see when they flowered. For the morphological study, different types of species were examined again and again in order to see if there was any variation or not. They were collected at flowering stages and herbarium specimens were prepared as vouchers. In this practice standard method was followed. Results: A total of 196 species belonging to 160 genera under 69 families were recorded. One hundred nineteen (119) medicinal plants have been recorded with their uses for the cure of more than 87 diseases, and some of these are skin disease, diarrhea, dysentery, fever, earache, piles, inflammations, rheumatism, dyspepsia, constipation, diabetes, kidney disease, bronchitis, ulcers, anemia, asthma, ringworm, herpes, jaundice, headache, opthalmia, cough, eye disease leprosy, menstrual disease and others. Conclusion: The present study was made an inventory of the angiosperm diversity in the study area and documentation of long-established knowledge on the medicinal uses of these plants is essential for conservation efforts for the plants resources and new drug development.

Keywords: Diversity, Angiosperm Flora, Medicinal Plants, Bogra, Bangladesh


1. Introduction

Angiosperms are seed-bearing vascular plants. Their reproductive structures are flowers in which the ovules are enclosed in an ovary. Angiosperms are found in almost every habitat from forests and grasslands to sea margins and deserts. Angiosperms display a huge variety of life forms including trees, herbs, submerged aquatics, bulbs and epiphytes. The largest plant families are Orchids, and Compositae (daisies) and Legumes (beans). There are an estimated 352,000 species of flowering plants or angiosperms. The angiosperms provide valuable pharmaceuticals. With the exception of antibiotics, almost all medicinal either are derived directly from compounds produced by angiosperms or, if synthesized, were originally discovered in angiosperms. This includes some vitamins (e.g., vitamin C, originally extracted from fruits); aspirin, originally from the bark of willows (Salix; Salicaceae); narcotics (e.g., opium and its derivatives from the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum; Papaveraceae); and quinine from Cinchona (Rubiaceae) bark. The contribution of the angiosperms to biodiversity and habitat is so extremely important that human life is totally dependent on it. A significant loss of angiosperms would reduce the variety of food sources and oxygen supply in a habitat and drastically alter the amount and distribution of the world’s precipitation. Many sources of food and medicine doubtless remain to be discovered in this group of vascular plants [29], [30].

The importance of studying local floristic diversity and medicinal uses has been realized and carried out in Bangladesh by [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [19], [20], [21], [22], [23], [24], [25], [26], [31], [32], [33], [34], [35], [36], [37], [38], [39], [40], [41], [42], [43], [44], [45], [46], [47], [48], [49], [50], [51], [52], [53], [54], [55], [56], [57], [58], [59], [60], [61], [62], [63], [64], [65], [66], [67], [68], [69], [70], [71], [72], [73], [74], [75] and [76]. The present study was made an inventory of the angiosperm diversity and medicinal uses at the village Sabgram of Bogra, Bangladesh.

2. Materials and Methods

Study area: Sabgram village is situated at 24°51'34.7"N and 89°24'01.9"E. The village lies about for 3 Kilometers East of Bogra city. It is situated in the North-East side of Dhaka-Bogra highway road, near the Bogra bypass road-2, South of Matidali bus stand and west side of Gabtoli. The climate of Sabgram village is characterized by hot, humid summers and generally mild winters and rainfall. The summer season commerce early in the March with the cessation of the Northerly wind. The winter season (November-January) which is cool and little rainfall; summer season (June-October) which is warm and no rainfall. In terms of temperature variation it appears that average annual temperature is about 26-36. The maximum monthly temperature can reach up to 40.1 during May and minimum monthly temperature 9° C during January [8].

Methodology: Angiosperm diversity at the village of Bogra sadar, Bangladesh was carried out from March 2013 to July 2014. A total of 196 species belonging to 160 genera under 69 families were collected and identified. A survey on the determination of the location of different species was made and a list was prepared to be acquainted with the plants available in the selected area. All the species were noted and time to time the areas were visited to see when they flowered. For the morphological study, different types of species were examined again and again in order to see if there was any variation or not. They were collected at flowering stages and herbarium specimens were prepared as vouchers. In this practice standard method was followed. In this regard different types of plant species were collected from different habitats. All the collected plant specimens were kept in the Herbarium, Department of Botany, and University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.

Plant Identification: The major collected materials were identified and described up to species with the help of [9], [11], [25], [27] and [1] were consulted. For the current name and up-to-date nomenclature [12] and [28] were also consulted.

3. Results and Discussion

Angiosperm diversity at the village Sabgram under Sadar upazila of Bogra district, Bangladesh conducted during March 2013 to July 2014. A total of 196 species belonging to 160 genera under 69 families were recorded. Of these, Magnoliopsida (Dicotyledones) is represented by 172 species under 138 genera and 61 families while Liliopsida (Monocotyledones) is represented by 24 species under 22 genera and 8 families. Cucurbitaceae is the largest family in Magnoliopsida represented by 13 species and, in Liliopsida, Poaceae is the largest family with 9 species. Habit analysis shows that herbs, shrubs, climbers and trees are represented by 69, 42, 28 and 57 species, respectively. Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Apocynaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Convolvulaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Moraceae, Malvaceae, Mimosaceae, Myrtaceae, Poaceae, Rutaceae and Solanaceae are the dominant families with high species diversity. For each species botanical name, synonyms, local name, habit, habitat, flowering and fruiting time, status of occurrence, voucher number and family were provided. Of 196 species recorded here, herbs are represented by 69 (35.20%), trees by 57 (29.08%), shrubs by 42 (21.43%) and climber by 28 (14.29%) species.

Based on this study, a preliminary list of angiosperm flora at the village Sabgram of Bogra district, Bangladesh conducted during March 2013 to July 2014. A total of 196 species belonging to 160 genera under 69 families were recorded (Table 1). The collected information is comparable with the result of other studies in Bangladesh. A total of 243 species belonging to 195 genera under 95 families were recorded in Khagrachhari district [13]. A total of 374 species belonging to 264 genera under 84 families were recorded in Lawachara National Park [78]. A total of 153 species belonging to 120 genera under 52 families were recorded in Runctia Sal Forest [77]. A total of 245 species belonged to 183 genera and 72 families are documented in Habiganj district [7]. A total of 425 species belonging to 321 genera 108 families are recorded in Rajshahi district [56]. A total of 302 species belonging to 243 genera 84 families are recorded in Bangladesh Police Academy, Rajshahi [57].

Figure 1. Habit diversity of the recorded species in the study area.

Figure 2. Number of plant parts used for medicinal purpose.

Figure 3. Photographs of Important Angiosperm Plant Species.

A: Corchorus capsularis, B: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, C: Sida cordifolia, D: Carica papaya, E: Benincasa hispida, F: Coccinia cordifolia, G: Cucumis melo, H: Cucumis sativus, I: Cucurbita maxima, J: Lagenaria siceraria,  K: Luffa acutangula, L: Luffa cylindrica, M: Momordica charantia, N: Momordica cochinchinensis, O: Trichosanthes anguina, P: Mukia maderaspatana, Q: Trichosanthes dioica, R: Cleome viscosa, S: Brassica napus, T: Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis

Table 1. Showing the families of the plant species recorded.

Family name No. of the Herb species No. of the Shrub species No. of the Climber species No. of the Tree species
Acanthaceae - 2 - -
Amaranthaceae 6 1 - -
Anacardiaceae - - - 4
Annonaceae - - - 2
Apiaceae 2 - - -
Apocynaceae 2 3 - 1
Araceae 2 - 1 -
Arecaceae - - - 4
Asclepiadaceae - 1 - -
Asteraceae 7 1 - -
Balsaminaceae 1 - - -
Basellaceae - - 1 -
Bombaceace - - - 1
Boraginaceae 1 - - -
Brassicaceae 4 - - -
Caesalpiniaceae - - - 2
Capparaceae 1 - - -
Caricaceae - - - 1
Chenopodiaceae 2 - - -
Combretaceae - - - 2
Commelinaceae 1 - - -
Convolvulaceae - - 3 -
Crassulaceae 1 - - -
Cucurbitaceae - - 13 -
Cuscutaceae - - 1 -
Dilleniaceae - - - 1
Ebenaceae - - - 1
Elaeocarpaceae - - - 1
Euphorbiaceae 2 4 - 1
Fabaceae 4 3 2 2
Lamiaceae 4 - - -
Lauraceae - 1 - 2
Liliaceae 2 - 1 -
Lythraceae - 1 - 1
Malvaceae 2 1 - -
Meliaceae - - - 3
Menispermaceae - - 1 -
Mimosaceae 1 - - 1
Molluginaceae 1 - - -
Moraceae - 1 - 7
Moringaceae - - - 1
Musaceae - 1 - -
Myrtaceae - - - 5
Nyctaginaceae 1 - 2 -
Nymphaeaceae 1 - - -
Oleaceae - 2 - -
Oxalidaceae 1 - - 1
Papaveraceae 1 - - -
Pedaliaceae 1 - - -
Piperaceae - - 1 -
Plantaginaceae 1 - - -
Poaceae 4 5 - -
Polygonaceae 2 - - -
Pontederiaceae 1 - - -
Portulacaceae 1 - - -
Punicaceae - - - 1
Rhamnaceae - - - 1
Rosaceae - 2 - -
Rubiaceae - 3 - 1
Rutaceae - 1 - 4
Sapindaceae - - - 1
Sapotaceae - - - 2
Solanaceae 5 5 - -
Sterculiaceae - - - 1
Tiliaceae - 1 - -
Trapaceae 1 - - -
Verbenaceae 1 3 - 2
Vitaceae - - 2 -
Zingiberaceae 2 - - -
Total 69 42 28 57

 

Medicinally important Plants

The important medicinal plants at the village Sabgram under sadar upazila of Bogra district were carried out. A total of 119 medicinal plant species belonging to 109 genera and 50 families were collected and recorded for their use in 142 ailments. Most of the local people in the study area are poor are illiterate. In one hand, these people are out of the reach of modern medicines and on other hand, the market price of most available medicines are very expensive. As a result, these medicinal plants are used by them to cure following the diseases, especially for abscess, asthma, abortion, cough, cold, small pox, constipation, dysentery, diarrhea, diabetes, eczema, fever, and fracture of bone, headache, heart disease, itches, jaundice, menstrual disease, paralysis, piles, skin diseases, snake-bite, toothache, vomiting, worm, wound and others (Table 2). Different plant parts of different spp. are used as medicine for treating various diseases. Leaves of 37, fruit of 28, whole plant of 24, root of 16, bark of 12, seed of 8, stem of 5, flower of 5, rhizome of 3, Petiole of 2 and others of 5 species were used as medicine (Table 2). For each species scientific name, local name, habit, family, ailments to be treated, mode of treatment and part (s) used are provided. The study also suggested that the present information on medicinal use of plants by tribal people may be used for botanical and pharmacological research in future for the discovery of new sources of drugs. This finding of common medicinal plant families in the study is in agreement with [4], [10], [14], [15], [16], [17], [79], [80], [81], [82], [83], [84], [85], [86] and [87].

Table 2. List of medicinal plants and their use in different ailments by the local people at the village Sabgram of Bogra district, Bangladesh.

Family Scientific Name Parts used Medicinal use
Acanthaceae Justicia adhatoda Whole plant Bleeding piles.
Acanthaceae Justicia gendarusa Leafs Insecticidal, chest pain.
Amaranthaceae Alternathera sessilis Whole Plant Blood vomiting.
Amaranthaceae Amaranthus spinosus Whole Plant Appetite, burning sensation, hallucination, leprosy, piles, bronchitis, leucorrhoea, constipation and flatulence.
Amaranthaceae Amaranthus viridis Whole Plant Burning sensation, hallucination, leprosy, bronchitis, piles, leucorrhoea and constipation.
Amaranthaceae Celosia cristata Whole Plant/Flower Dysentery, diarrhoea and excessive menstrual discharges.
Annonaceae Annona squamosa Root, Bark Diarrhoea.
Annonaceae Polyalthia longifolia Bark, Leaves Fever.
Anacardiaceae Lannea coromandelica Bark Leprous and obstinate ulcers.
Anacardiaceae Mangifera indica Unripe fruit Dysentery and urinary discharges, ophthalmia and eruption.
Anacardiaceae Spondius pinnata Bark Dysentery, diarrhoea and vomiting.
Apiaceae Centella asiatica Whole Plant Improves appetite, dysentery, leucoderma, urinary discharges, bronchitis, inflammations, fevers, insanity and syphilitic skin diseases.
Apiaceae Coriandrum sativum Fruit Improves appetite.
Apocynaceae Alstonia scholaris Sap, gum and roots Cancer.
Apocynaceae Catharanthus roseus Whole Plant, Leaves Diabetes, wasp-sting, menorrhagia.
Apocynaceae Nerium indicum Root and root bark Cancers and ulcers on the penis, chronic pain in the abdomen and pain in the joints.
Apocynaceae Tabernaemontana divaricata Roots Tonic to the brains, liver and spleen.
Apocynaceae Carissa carandas Fruit The fruit has been used remedy for diabetes.
Araceae Typhonium trilobatum Petiole Poisonous insect bite.
Asparagaceae Asparagus racemosus Roots Diseases of the kidney and the liver, scalding urine and gleets, promotes lactation.
Asteraceae Eclipta alba Whole Plant Inflammations, hernias, eye diseases, bronchitis and asthma.
Asteraceae Helianthus annuus Leaves Lumber pain, malaria.
Asteraceae Tagetes patula Whole Plant, Leaves Rheumatism, cold and bronchitis, Kidney troubles, muscular pains.
Asteraceae Xanthium indicum Whole Plant Urinary and renal complaints in gleets, leucorrhoea and menorrhagia.
Asclepiadaceae Calotropis procera Root bark Dyspepsia, flatulence, constipation, loss of appetite, indigestion and mucus in stool.
Boraginaceae Heliotropium indicum Whole Plant Ulcers, sores, wounds, gum boils, skin affections, stings of insects and rheumatism.
Chenopodiaceae Chenopodium ambrosioides Leaves Eczema.
Combretaceae Terminalia arjuna Stem Heart disease.
Convolvulaceae Ipomoea alba Leaves Filariasis, constipation, boils and wounds.
Convolvulaceae Ipomoea aquatica Whole Plant Leucoderma, leprosy, fever, jaundice, biliousness, bronchitis and liver complaints.
Convolvulaceae Ipomoea batatus Whole Plant, Root Low fever and skin disease, strangury and diarrhoea.
Caesalpiniaceae Tamarindus indica Pulp of the ripe fruit Fever, dyspepsia, gastritis, dysentery and diarrhoea.
Crassulaceae Bryophyllum pinnatum Leaves Blood dysentery.
Cucurbitaceae Benincasa hispida Fruits Haemoptysis and other haemorrhages from internal organs, particularly beneficial in phthisis.
Cucurbitaceae Cucumis melo Pulp of the fruit Eczema, biliousness, insanity, ascites and allays fatigue.
Cucurbitaceae Cucumis sativus Fruits Relieve inflammation, sunburn and eyestrain.
Cucurbitaceae Cucurbita maxima Pulp of the fruit Burns, inflammations and boils, migraine and neuralgia.
Cucurbitaceae Lagenaria sicararia Whole Plant, Leaves,Fruit Powerful laxative, muscular pain and dry cough.
Cucurbitaceae Luffa acutangula Leaves Splenitis, haemorrhoides, ringworms and leprosy.
Cucurbitaceae Luffa cylindrica Fruits Biliousness, spleen diseases, leprosy, piles, fever and bronchitis.
Cucurbitaceae Mukia maderaspatana Fruits Asthma, earache, inflammations, epilepsy and rheumatism, weakness of limbs, ophthalmia and leprosy.
Cucurbitaceae Trichosanthes dioica Leaves Dysentery, diarrhoea, bronchitis and to arrest bleeding from bruises, and for the restoration of hairs.
Cucurbitaceae Trichosanthes arguina Leaves, Stem Bilious disorders and skin diseases, fever.
Cuscutaceae Cuscuta reflexa Whole plant Prevent hair fall.
Elaeocarpaceae Elaeocarpus robustus Fruits, Leaves, bark Dysentery and diarrhoea, mouth-wash for inflamed gums.
Euphorbiaceae Croton bonplandianum Leaves, Seed Cough, eczema and ringworm
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia hirta Whole Plant Abscesses, inflamed glands, ulcers.
Euphorbiaceae Jatropha gossypifolia Leaves Diabetes.
Fabaceae Cajanus cajan Leaves Jaundice and pneumonia.
Fabaceae Senna sophera Leaves Asthma, bronchitis and hiccup.
Fabaceae Clitoria tarnetea Root Tonic to the brain, good for ulcers of cornea, tuberculosis glands, elephantiasis and headache, cures leucoderma, burning sensation, pains, biliousness, inflammations and ulcers.
Fabaceae Dalbergia sissoo Bark, Leaves Haemorrhages, epistaxis, menorrhagia and bleeding piles. Decoction of the leaves is useful in acute stage of gonorrhoea.
Fabaceae Erythrina variegata Leaves Pain of the joints and inflammations; earache, toothache.
Fabaceae Lablab purpureus Seed Inflammations.
Fabaceae Vigna sinensis Seed Jaundice, strengthen the stomach and to destroy worms.
Lamiaceae Leonuros sibiricus Whole Plant Puerperal and menstrual diseases, useful towards uterus contraction.
Lamiaceae Leucas aspera Leaves Chronic rheumatism, psoriasis and other chronic skin eruption.
Lamiaceae Ocimum sanctum Leaves Coughs, colds, catarrh and bronchitis, gastric disorder, earache, ringworm, leprosy and itches.
Lauraceae Cinnamomum tamala Leaves Prevention of coughing.
Lauraceae Cinnamomum verum   Bark Parched mouth, bronchitis, hiccup, piles, diarrhoea and heart trouble.
Lauraceae Litsea monopetala Bark Diarrhoea and dysentery.
Liliaceae Allium cepa Bulb Cough, catarrh, asthma, rheumatism, colic and insect bites.
Liliaceae Allium sativum Bulb Fevers, coughs, bronchitis, rheumatism, inflammation, leucoderma, piles, indigestion, heart diseases and wounds, gas formation, painful menstruation and pain in abdomen and ears.
Malvaceae Abelmoschus esculentus Fruit Chronic dysentery, gonorrhoea, urinary discharges and diarrhoea.
Malvaceae Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Flower bud Burning of the body, urinary discharges, seminal weakness and piles.
Malvaceae Corchorus capsularis Leaves Dysentery.
Meliaceae Azadirachta indica Bark Fever, thirst, cough and bad taste in the mouth.
Meliaceae Swietenia mahagoni Seed Diabetes.
Menispermaceae Stephania japonica Leaves, root Fever, diarrhoea, urinary diseases and dyspepsia.
Mimosaceae Mimosa pudica Whole plant Snake bites.
Molluginaceae Glinus oppositifolius Whole plant Earache, skin diseases.
Moraceae Artocarpus heterophyllus Leaves Skin diseases.
Moraceae Artocarpus lacucha Seed Constipation.
Moraceae Ficus benghalensis Whole plant Toothache, dysentery, diarrhoea, piles and diabetes.
Moraceae Ficus racemosa Fruit Menorrhagia, haemoptysis, bronchitis, dry cough, diseases of kidney and spleen.
Moraceae Ficus religiosa Fruit Asthma.
Moraceae Ficus hispida Whole plant, Fruit Ulcers, biliousness, psoriasis, anaemia, piles, jaundice, haemorrhage of the nose and mouth, diabetes.
Moraceae Streblus asper Leaves Urinary inflammation.
Musaceae Musa sapientum Stem Stop bleeding, source of iron.
Myrtaceae Psidium guajava Root bark, Root Diarrhoea, dysentery.
Myrtaceae Syzygium cumini Bark Sore throat, bronchitis, asthma and dysentery.
Myrtaceae Syzygium jambos Bark, Leaves Asthma, dysentery and sore-eyes.
Nymphaeaceae Nymphaea nouchali Rhizome Piles, dysentery and dyspepsia.
Oleaceae Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Leaves Fever and rheumatism.
Oleaceae Jasminum grandiflorum Root In cases of ringworm and herpes.
Oxalidaceae Averrhoa carambola Fruit Influenza fever.
Oxalidaceae Oxalis corniculata Whole plant Piles, anaemia and tympanites.
Papaveraceae Argemone mexicana Latex Skin cracks, dropsy, jaundice warts, tumours, cancer, and cutaneous. affections.
Pedaliaceae Sesamum indicum Seed Piles.
Piperaceae Piper betel Leaves Indigestion, colic, diarrhoea, pulmonary catarrh, laryngitis, headache and cough.
Polygonaceae Polygonum hydropiper Flower Gout.
Portulacaceae Portulaca oleracea Whole plant Cardio-vascular diseases, dysuria, hematuria,  gonorrhoea, dysentery, sore nipples and ulcers of the mouth.
Punicaceae Punica granatum Stem Abdominal pain.
Rubiaceae Anthocephalus chinensis Leaves Aphthae and stomatitis.
Rubiaceae Gardenia jasminoides Whole plant Antiseptic.
Rubiaceae Ixora coccinia Root, Flower Hiccup, fever, gonorrhoea, diarrhoea, dysentery, leucorrhoea, dysmenorrheal, haemoptysis and catarrhal bronchitis.
Rubiaceae Morinda citrifolia Fruit Dysentery.
Rutaceae Aegle marmelos Fruit Diarrhoea, dysentery and ripe fruit for constipation.
Rutaceae Citrus aurantifolia Fruit Skin irritation and nausea; juice is appetizer, stomachic, antiscorbutic, refrigerant, antiseptic and anthelmintic; used in biliousness, sore throat and eye complaints, relieves vomiting.
Rutaceae Citrus grandis Fruit Influenza, cough, catarrh and asthma.
Rutaceae Limonia acidissima Fruit Tonic to the liver and lungs; cures cough, hiccup and dysentery; good for asthma, consumption, tumours, ophthalmia and leucorrhoea.
Sapindaceae Litchi chinensis Fruit, Seed Tonic to the heart, brain and liver, various neuralgic disorders and in orchitis.
Sapotaceae Mimusops elengi Stem bark Antidote to bleeding gums and swelling of the mouth and tongue.
Solanaceae Capsicum frutescens Leaves Headache, night blindness, pain, adenitis, sores and bronchitis.
Solanaceae Datura metel Seed, Leaves, Root Insanity, fever with catarrh, diarrhoea, skin diseases and cerebral complications.
Solanaceae Lycopersicon esculentum Fruit Canker of the mouth.
Solanaceae Physalis minima Leaves, Fruit Earache, gonorrhoea and spleen disorder.
Solanaceae Solanum nigrum Fruit Fevers.
Solanaceae Solanum melongena Fruit Appetite and lessens inflammation
Solanaceae Solanum torvum Whole plant Cough.
Sterculiaceae Abroma augusta Root bark, Leaves stalk Irregular menses and pain, dysentery, weakness.
Trapaceae Trapa bispinosa Fruit Diarrhoea and bilious affections; nervous and general debility, seminal weakness and leucorrhoea.
Verbenaceae Clerodendrum inerme Leaves, Root Scrofulous and venereal diseases.
Verbenaceae Clerodendrum viscosum Leaves, Root Asthma, tumours and certain skin diseases.
Verbenaceae Gmelina arborea Young Leaves, Flower Gonorrhoea and cough, leprosy and blood diseases.
Verbenaceae Vitex negundo Leaves Headache.
Verbenaceae Tectona grandis Wood Piles, leucoderma and dysentery.
Zingiberaceae Curcuma longa Rhizome Scabies, itches, boils, abscess, eczema, leucoderma, eye diseases, pains, bruises and sprains; internally for cough, cold, fever.
Zingiberaceae Zingiber officinale Rhizome Constipation, dysentery, vomiting, headache, earache, sprain joints, in sore throats and voice loss.

4. Conclusion

Angiosperm diversity at the village Sabgram of Bogra district, Bangladesh conducted during March 2013 to July 2014. A total of 196 species belonging to 160 genera under 69 families were recorded. Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Apocynaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Convolvulaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Moraceae, Malvaceae, Mimosaceae, Myrtaceae, Poaceae, Rutaceae and Solanaceae are the dominant families with high species diversity. A total of 119 medicinal plant species belonging to 109 genera and 50 families were collected and recorded for their use in 142 ailments. Most of the local people in the study area are poor are illiterate. In one hand, these people are out of the reach of modern medicines and on other hand, the market price of most available medicines are very expensive. As a result, these medicinal plants are used by them to cure following the diseases, especially for asthma, cough, constipation, dysentery, diarrhea, diabetes, earache, fever, headache, jaundice, menstrual disease, piles, skin diseases, vomiting, worm, wound and others. The study also suggested that the present information on medicinal use of plants by tribal people may be used for botanical and pharmacological research in future for the discovery of new sources of drugs.


References

  1. Ahmed ZU, Begum ZNT, Hassan MA, Khondker M, Kabir SMH, Ahmad M, Ahmed ATA, Rahman AKA and Haque, EU (Eds). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh. Angiosperms; Asiat. Soc. Bangladesh, Dhaka, Vols. 6-10. 2008-2009.
  2. Alam MK, Choudhury J and Hassan MA. Some folk formularies from Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Life Sci., 1996; 8 (1): 49-63.
  3. Alam MK. Medical ethno-botany of the Marma tribe of Bangladesh. EconomicBotany, 1992; 46 (3): 330-335.
  4. Anisuzzaman M, Rahman AHMM, Rashid, MH, Naderuzzaman ATM and Islam AKMR. An Ethnobotanical Study of Madhupur, Tangail, Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 2007; 3 (7): 519-530.
  5. Ara T, Islam AKMR and Rahman AHMM. Taxonomy of Solanaceae: Taxonomic Enumeration of the family Solanaceae in the Rajshahi University Campus, Bangladesh. Lambert Academic Publishing AG & CO KG. Germany, 2013.
  6. Ara T, Khokan EH and Rahman AHMM. Taxonomic Studies on the Family Solanaceae in the Rajshahi University Campus. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences, 2011; 4 (1): 29-34.
  7. Arefin MK, Rahman MM, Uddin MZand Hassan MA. Angiosperm Flora of Satchari National Park, Habiganj, Bangladesh.Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon., 2011; 18 (2): 117-140.
  8. BBS (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics). Statistical Year Book of Bangladesh, 23rd edition, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Planning Division, Ministry of Planning Government of Peoples Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka, 2009.
  9. Cronquist A. An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. Columbia University Press. New York, 1981.
  10. Ghani A. Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, 2003.
  11. Hooker JD. Flora of British India. Vols. 1-7. L. Reeve and Co. Ltd. London, U. K, 1961.
  12. Huq AM. Plant Names of Bangladesh. Bangladesh National Herbarium, BARC, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 1986.
  13. Islam MR, Uddin MZ and Hassan MA. An Assessment of the Angiosperm Flora of Ramgarh Upazila of Khagrachhari District, Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon., 2009; 16 (2): 115-140.
  14. Islam MJ and Rahman AHMM. An Assessment of the Family Asteraceae at Sadullaur Upazila of Gaibandha District, Bangladesh with Particular Reference to Medicinal Plants. Journal of Progressive Research in Biology. 2016; 2 (2): 108-118.
  15. Jamila M, Islam MJ and Rahman AHMM. Folk Medicine Practices for the treatment of Abortion, Body weakness, Bronchitis, Burning sensation, Leprosy and Gout of Santal Tribal Practitioners at Jamtala Village under Sadar Upazila of Chapai Nawabganj District, Bangladesh. International Journal of Advanced Research. 2016; 4 (6): 587-596.
  16. Jamila M and Rahman AHMM. Traditional Medicine Practices for the treatment of Blood pressure, Body pain, Gastritis, Gonorrhea, Stomachic, Snake bite and Urinary problems of Santal Tribal Practitioners at the Village Jamtala of Chapai Nawabganj District, Bangladesh. Journal of Pregressive Research in Biology. 2016; 2 (2): 99-107.
  17. Jamila M and Rahman AHMM. Ethnobotanical Study of Traditional Medicinal Plants Used by the Santal Tribal Practitioners at the village Jamtala of Chapai Nawabganj District, Bangladesh. Journal of Progressive Research in Biology. 2016; 3 (1): 142-159.
  18. Jamila M and Rahman AHMM. A Survey of Traditional Medicinal Knowledge for the Treatment of Asthma, Cold, Cough, Fever, Jaundice and Rheumatism of Santal Tribal Practitioners of Chapai Nawabganj District, Bangladesh, Discovery. 2016; 52 (251): 2068-2080.
  19. Khan MS and Afza SK.A taxonomic report on the angiospermic flora of Teknaf and St. Martin's Island. Dhaka Univ. Studies, Part B., 1968; 16: 35-37.
  20. Khan MS and Banu F, A taxonomic report on the angiospermic flora of Chittagong Hill Tracts- 2. J. Asiat. Soc. Bangladesh. 1972; 17 (2): 63-68.
  21. Khan MS and Hassan MA. A taxonomic report on the angiospermic flora of St. Martin'sIsland. Dhaka Univ. Studies, Part B.,1984; 32 (1): 76-78.
  22. Khan MS and Huq AM. The vascular flora of Chunati Wildlife Sanctuary in south Chittagong, Bangladesh.Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon,2001; 8 (1): 47-64.
  23. Khan MS and A. M. Huq AM. Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh, BARC, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 1975.
  24. Khan MS. Prospects of Ethnobotany and Ethnobotanical Research in Bangladesh. In:Banik RL, Alam MK, Pei SJ, Rastogi A (eds.), Applied Ethnobotany, BFRI, Chittagong,Bangladesh, 1998; P. 24-27.
  25. Kirtikar KRand Basu BD. Indian Medicinal Plants. Vol. 1-4. Lalit MohanBasu, Allahabad, Jayyed Press, New Delhi, India, 1987.
  26. Kona S and Rahman AHMM. Inventory of Medicinal Plants at Mahadebpur Upazila of Naogaon District, Bangladesh. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 2016; 4 (3): 75-83.
  27. Prain D. Bengal Plants. Vols.1-2. Botanical Survey of India. Calcutta, India, 1963.
  28. Pasha MK and Uddin SB. Dictionary of Plant Names of Bangladesh (Vascular Plants). Janokalyan Prokashani. Chittagong, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2013.
  29. Purseglove JW. Tropical Crops Monocotyledones. Longman Group Limited, London, U. K, 1968.
  30. Purseglove JW. Tropical Crops Dicotyledons. Longman Group Limited, London, U. K, 1968.
  31. Rahman AHMM, Anisuzzaman M, Alam MZ, Islam AKMRand Zaman ATMN. Taxonomic Studies of the Cucurbits Grown in the Northern Parts of Bangladesh. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 2006; 2 (6): 299-302.
  32. Rahman AHMM, Anisuzzaman M, Ahmed F, Zaman ATMN and Islam AKMR. A Floristic Study in the Graveyards of Rajshahi City. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 2007; 3 (6): 670-675.
  33. Rahman AHMM, Islam AKMR and Naderuzzaman ATM. Studies on the herbaceous plant species in the graveyard areas of Rajshahi city. Plant Environment Development, 2007; 1 (1): 57-60.
  34. Rahman AHMM, Islam AKMR, Naderuzzaman ATM, Hossain MD and Afza R. Studies on the Aquatic Angiosperms of the Rajshahi University Campus. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 2007; 3 (5): 474-480.
  35. Rahman AHMM, Alam MS, Hossain MB, Nesa MN, Islam AKMR and Rahman MM. Study of Species Diversity on the family Asteraceae (Compositae) of the Rajshahi Division. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 2008; 4 (6): 794-797.
  36. Rahman AHMM, Alam MS, Khan SK,Ahmed F, Islam AKMR and Rahman MM. Taxonomic Studies on the family Asteraceae (Compositae) of the Rajshahi Division. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 2008; 4 (2): 134-140.
  37. Rahman AHMM, Anisuzzaman M, Ahmed F, Islam AKMR and Naderuzzaman ATM. Study of Nutritive Value and Medicinal Uses of Cultivated Cucurbits. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 2008; 4 (5): 555-558.
  38. Rahman AHMM, Anisuzzaman M, Haider SA, Ahmed F, Islam AKMR and Naderuzzaman ATM. Study of Medicinal Plants in the Graveyards of Rajshahi City.Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 2008; 4 (1): 70-74.
  39. Rahman AHMM, Kabir EZMF, Sima SN, Sultana RS, Nasiruddin M and Naderuzzaman ATM. Study of an Ethnobotany at the Village Dohanagar, Naogaon. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 2010; 6 (9): 1466-1473.
  40. Rahman AHMM, Gulsan JE, Alam MS, Ahmad S, Naderuzzaman ATM and Islam AKMR. An Ethnobotanical Portrait of a Village: Koikuri, Dinajpur with Reference to Medicinal Plants. International Journal of Biosciences, 2012; 2 (7): 1-10.
  41. Rahman AHMM, Islam AKMR and Rahman MM. The Family Asteraceae of Rajshahi Division, Bangladesh. VDM Verlag Dr. Muller e.k. Publishers, Germany, 2011.
  42. Rahman AHMM, Nitu SK, Ferdows Z and Islam AKMR. Medico-botanyon herbaceous plants of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. American Journal of Life Sciences, 2013; 1 (3): 136-144.
  43. Rahman AHMM, Biswas MC, Islam AKMR and Zaman ATMN. Assessment of Traditional Medicinal Plants Used by Local People of Monirampur Thana under Jessore District of Bangladesh. Wudpecker Journal of Medicinal Plants,2013; 2 (6): 099-109.
  44. Rahman AHMM, Kabir EZMF, Islam AKMR and Zaman AKMR. Medico-botanical investigation by the tribal people of Naogaon district, Bangladesh. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies, 2013; 1 (4): 136-147.
  45. Rahman AHMM, Sultana N, Islam AKMR and Zaman ATMN. Study of Medical Ethno-botany of traditional medicinal plants used by local people at the village Genda under Savar Upazilla of district Dhaka, Bangladesh. Online International Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2013; 2 (1): 18-31.
  46. Rahman AHMM and Akter M. Taxonomy and Medicinal Uses of Euphorbiaceae (Spurge) Family of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Research in Plant Sciences,2013; 1 (3): 74-80.
  47. Rahman AHMM and Khanom A. Taxonomic and Ethno-Medicinal Study of Species from Moraceae (Mulberry) Family in Bangladesh Flora.Research in Plant Sciences, 2013; 1 (3): 53-57.
  48. Rahman AHMM. Ethno-medico-botanical investigation on cucurbits of the Rajshahi Division, Bangladesh. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies, 2013; 1 (3): 118-125.
  49. Rahman AHMM. Graveyards angiosperm diversity of Rajshahi city, Bangladeshwith emphasis on medicinal plants,American Journal of Life Sciences, 2013; 1 (3): 98-104.
  50. Rahman AHMM. Medico-botanical study of commonly used angiosperm weeds of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Wudpecker Journal of Medicinal Plants, 2013; 2 (3): 044-052.
  51. Rahman AHMM. Medico-botanical study of the plants found in the Rajshahidistrict of Bangladesh. Prudence Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2013; 1 (1): 1-8.
  52. Rahman AHMM. Medico-Ethnobotany: A study on the tribal people of Rajshahi Division, Bangladesh. Peak Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2013; 1 (1): 1-8.
  53. Rahman AHMM. Traditional Medicinal Plants Used in the Treatment of different Skin diseases of Santals at Abdullapur Village under Akkelpur Upazilla of Joypurhat district, Bangladesh. Biomedicine and Biotechnology, 2013; 1 (2): 17-20.
  54. Rahman AHMM. Ethno-medicinal investigation on ethnic community in the northern region of Bangladesh.American Journal of Life Sciences, 2013; 1 (2): 77-81.
  55. Rahman AHMM. Ethno-botanical Survey of Traditional Medicine Practice for the Treatment of Cough, Diabetes, Diarrhea, Dysentery and Fever of Santals at Abdullahpur Village under Akkelpur Upazilla of Joypurhat District, Bangladesh.Biomedicine and Biotechnology. 2013; 1 (2): 27-30.
  56. Rahman AHMM. Angiospermic flora of Rajshahi district, Bangladesh. American Journal of Life Sciences, 2013; 1 (3): 105-112.
  57. Rahman AHMM, Ferdous Z. and Islam AKMR. A Preliminary Assessment of Angiosperm Flora of Bangladesh Police Academy. Research in Plant Sciences. 2014; 2 (1): 9-15.
  58. Rahman AHMM. An Ethno-botanical investigation on Asteraceae family at Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants, 2014; 1 (5): 92-100.
  59. Rahman AHMM. Assessment of Angiosperm Weeds of Rajshahi, Bangladesh with emphasis on medicinal plants. Research in Plant Sciences, 2013; 1 (3): 62-67.
  60. Rahman AHMM. A Checklist of Common Angiosperm Weeds of Rajshahi District, Bangladesh. International Journal of Agricultural and Soil Science, 2013; 1 (1): 1-6.
  61. Rahman AHMM, Afsana MW and Islam AKMR.Taxonomy and Medicinal Uses on Acanthaceae Family of Rajshahi, Bangladesh,Journal of Applied Science And Research, 2014; 2 (1): 82-93.
  62. Rahman AHMM, Hossain MM and Islam AKMR. Taxonomy and Medicinal Uses of Angiosperm weeds in the wheat field of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Frontiers of Biological and Life Sciences, 2014; 2 (1): 8-11.
  63. Rahman AHMM, Jahan-E-Gulsan SM and Naderuzzaman ATM. Ethno-Gynecological Disorders of Folk Medicinal Plants Used by Santhals of Dinajpur District, Bangladesh. Frontiers of Biological & Life Sciences, 2014; 2 (3): 62-66.
  64. Rahman AHMM. Ethno-gynecological study of traditional medicinal plants used by Santals of Joypurhat district, Bangladesh.Biomedicine and Biotechnology, 2014; 2 (1): 10-13.
  65. Rahman AHMM. Ethno-medicinal Practices for the Treatment of Asthma, Diuretic, Jaundice, Piles, Rheumatism and Vomiting at the Village Abdullahpur under Akkelpur Upazilla of Joypurhat District, Bangladesh. International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 2014; 1 (2): 4-8.
  66. Rahman AHMM and Gulshana MIA. Taxonomy and Medicinal Uses on Amaranthaceae Family of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 2014; 2 (2): 54-59.
  67. Rahman AHMM and Parvin MIA. Study of Medicinal Uses on Fabaceae Family at Rajshahi, Bangladesh.Research in Plant Sciences, 2014; 2 (1): 6-8.
  68. Rahman AHMM and Rahman MM. An Enumeration of Angiosperm weeds in the Paddy field of Rajshahi, Bangladesh with emphasis on medicinal Plants. Journal of Applied Science and Research, 2014; 2 (2): 36-42.
  69. Rahman AHMM and Rojonigondha. Taxonomy and Traditional Medicine Practices on Malvaceae (Mallow Family) of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Open Journal of Botany, 2014; 1 (2): 19-24.
  70. Rahman AHMM. Ethnomedicinal Survey of Angiosperm Plants used by Santal Tribe of Joypurhat District, Bangladesh. International Journal of Advanced Research, 2015; 3 (5):990-1001.
  71. Rahman AHMM. Traditional Medicinal Plants in the treatment of Important Human Diseases of Joypurhat District, Bangladesh. Journal of Biological Pharmaceutical and Chemical Research, 2015; 2 (1): 21-29.
  72. Rahman AHMM. Ethno-botanical Survey of Anti-Diabetic Medicinal Plants Used by the Santal Tribe of Joypurhat District, Bangladesh. International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Biosciences, 2015; 2 (5): 19-26.
  73. Rahman AHMM and Sarker AK. Investigation of Medicinal Plants at Katakhali Pouroshova of Rajshahi District, Bangladesh and their Conservation Management. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 2015; 3 (6): 184-192.
  74. Rahman AHMM, Akter S, Rani R and Islam AKMR. Taxonomic Study of Leafy Vegetables at Santahar Pouroshova of Bogra District, Bangladesh with Emphasis on Medicinal Plants.International Journal of Advanced Research, 2015; 3 (5): 1019-1036.
  75. Rahman AHMM and Keya MA. Traditional Medicinal Plants Used by local People at the Village Sabgram under Sadar Upazila of Bogra District, Bangladesh. Researchin Plant Sciences,2015; 3 (2): 31-37.
  76. Rahman AHMM and Debnath A. Ethno-botanical Study at the Village Pondit Para under Palash Upazila of Narsingdi District, Bangladesh. International Journal of Advanced Research, 2015; 3 (5): 1037-1052.
  77. Tutul E, Uddin MZ, Rahman MO and Hassan MA. Angiospermic Flora of Runctia Sal Forest, Bangladesh. II. Magnoliopsida (Dicots). Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon. 2010; 17 (1): 33-54.
  78. Uddin MZ and Hassan MA. Angiosperm Diversity of Lawachara National Park (Bangladesh): A Preliminary Assessment. Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon. 2010; 17 (1): 9-22.
  79. Uddin K, Rahman AHMM andIslam AKMR. Taxonomy and Traditional Medicine Practices of Polygonaceae (Smartweed) Family at Rajshahi, Bangladesh. International Journal of Advanced Research,2014;2 (11): 459-469.
  80. Uddin M, Roy S, Hassan MA and Rahman MM. Medicobotanical report on the Chakma people of Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon.,2008; 15 (1): 67-72.
  81. Uddin MZ, Hassan MA, Rahman M and Arefin K. Ethno-medico-botanical studyin Lawachara National Park, Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Bot., 2012; 41 (1): 97-104.
  82. Uddin MZ, Hassan MA and Sultana M. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Phulbari Upazilla of Dinajpur District, Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon.,2006; 12 (1): 63-68.
  83. Uddin MZ, Khan MS and Hassan MA. Ethno medical plants records of Kalenga forest range (Habiganj), Bangladesh for malaria, jaundice, diarrhea and dysentery. Bangladesh J.Plant Taxon., 2001; 8 (1): 101-104.
  84. Uddin SN, Uddin MZ,Hassan MA and Rahman MM. Preliminary ethno-medicinal plant survey in Khagrachhari district, Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon. 2004; 11 (2): 39-48.
  85. Yusuf M, Begum J, Hoque MN and Choudhury JU. Medicinal plants ofBangladesh-Revised and Enlarged. Bangladesh Coun. Sci. Ind. Res. Lab. Chittagong, Bangladesh, 2009.
  86. Yusuf M, Choudhury JU, Wahab MA and Begum J. Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. Dhaka, Bangladesh.1994; Pp. 1-340.
  87. Yusuf M, Wahab MA, Choudhury JU and Begum J. Ethno-medico-botanical knowledge from Kaukhali proper and Betunia of Rangamati district. Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon. 2006; 13 (1): 55-61.

Article Tools
  Abstract
  PDF(491K)
Follow on us
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
548 FASHION AVENUE
NEW YORK, NY 10018
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-688-8931